Expertise is a process that happens over time. How much time depends on the learner and the circumstance. Plus of course how difficult the task is. Learning to ride a bike won't take 10,000 hours. Becoming a professional musician will take more than that.
None the less the 4 stages are a model that is helpful.
Unconscious incompetence is making beginner mistakes without knowing it. Unless this is addressed early the activity will become boring and we will move on. Or worse, show up to play with other more competent musicians and make a fool of ourselves.
In conscious incompetence we make similar mistakes, but we are aware of it. Thus, learning can take place. This is where the guidance and encouragement of a teacher comes in.
Conscious competence allows us to play, make music with others, but we are working hard to keep it together. This is a great place to be.
Unconscious competence is proficiency. We play what we hear, it's appropriate to the musical situation, we can execute without thought. We are free.
Professionals explore the earlier stages to evolve and move forward by seeking out areas to improve. We seek guidance from Experts. in short, lifelong learning, the secret to longevity as a musician.
If I can help, call me.
For further information please read this. The Stages of Learning: How You Become More Competent at Skills – Effectiviology
David Story, drummer, pianist, qualified online music teacher